Douglas Crockford




2020 Appearances





How JavaScript Works



Better living thru eventuality!

Parseq provides a straightforward functional approach to the management of concurrent programming with eventuality. Parseq embraces the paradigm of distributed message passing.

You should structure your application as a set of requestor functions that each performs or manages a unit of work. This is a good design pattern in general. The workflow is specified by assembling the requestors into sets that are passed to the parseq factories. The units of work are kept distinct from the mechanics of control flow, leading to better programs.

parseq.js is a JavaScript module that exports a parseq object that contains five factory functions.

import parseq from "./parseq.js";


A factory function is any function that returns a requestor function. Parseq provides these factory functions:






Each of these factories (except for parallel_object) takes an array of requestor functions. The parallel factory can take two arrays of requestor functions.

Each of these factory functions returns a requestor function. A factory function may throw an exception if it finds problems in its parameters.


A requestor function is any function that takes a callback and an optional value.

my_little_requestor(callback, value)  

A requestor will do some work or send a message to another process or system. When the work is done, the requestor signals the result by passing a result to its callback. The callback could be called in a future turn, so the requestor does not need to block, nor should it ever block.

The value may be of any type, including objects, arrays, and undefined.

A requestor will pass its value parameter to any requestors that it starts. A sequence will pass the value parameter to its first requestor. It will then pass the result of the previous requestor to the next requestor.

A requestor should not throw an exception. It should communicate all failures through its callback.


A callback function takes two arguments: value and reason.

my_little_callback(value, reason)  

If value is undefined, then failure is being signalled. reason may contain information explaining the failure. If value is not undefined, then success is being signalled and value contains the result.


A requestor function may return a cancel function. A cancel function takes a reason argument that might be propagated as the reason of some callback.


A cancel function attempts to stop the operation of the requestor. If a program decides that it no longer needs the result of a requestor, it can call the cancel function that the requestor returned. This is not an undo operation. It is just a way of stopping unneeded work. It is not guaranteed to stop the work.

Time Limit

All of the factories can take a time_limit expressed in milliseconds. The requestor that the factory returns will fail if it can not finish its work in the specified time. If time_limit is 0 or undefined, then there will be no time limit.

Three of the factories (parallel, parallel_object, and race) can take a throttle argument. Normally these factories want to start all of their requestors at once. Unfortunately, that can cause some incompetent systems to fail due to resource exhaustion or other limitations. The throttle puts an upper limit on the number of requestors that can be running at once. Please be aware that some of your requestors might not start running until others have finished. You need to factor that delay into your time limits.


Starting too many parallel or race operations at once can cause some systems to fail similar to a denial of service attack. Parseq allows you to set a limit on the maximum number of requestors running on a parallel or race at any moment.

The Parseq Factory Functions

parseq.fallback(requestor_array, time_limit)

parseq.fallback returns a requestor function. When the requestor is called, it will call the first requestor in requestor_array. If that is ultimately successful, its value will be passed to the callback. But if that requestor fails, the next requestor will be called, and so on. If none of the requestors is successful, then the fallback fails. If any succeeds, then the fallback succeeds.

If time_limit is 0 or undefined, then there is no time limit. If time_limit is greater than 0, then a time limit is imposed. The fallback requestor will fail if it can not finish in time.

The fallback requestor will return a cancel function that can be called when the result is no longer needed.

parseq.parallel(required_array, optional_array, time_limit, time_option, throttle)

parseq.parallel returns a requestor that processes many requestors in parallel, producing an array of all of the successful results. It does not add parallelism to JavaScript. It makes it possible for JavaScript to exploit the natural parallelism of the universe.

parseq.parallel can take two arrays of requestors: Those that are required to produce results, and those that may optionally produce results. The parallel operation only succeeds if all of the required requestors succeed. Failure of optional requestors does not cause the parallel operation to fail.

The result maps the success values of the required requestors and optional requestors into a single array. The value produced by the first element of the requestors array provides the first element of the result.

If the time_limit argument is supplied, then a time limit is imposed. The result must be complete before the time expires.

If there is no time limit, and if there are required requestors, then the parallel operation is finished when all of the required requestors are done. All unfinished optional requestors will be cancelled.

The time_option parameter works when there are both required requestors and optional requestors. It can have one of three values:

undefinedThe optional requestors must finish before the required requestors finish. The required requestors must finish before the time limit, if there is one.
trueThe required requestors and the optional requestors must all finish before the time limit.
falseThe required requestors have no time limit. The optional requestors must finish before the required finish and the time limit, whichever is later.

If throttle is not undefined or 0, then there will be a limit on the number of requestors that will be active at a time.

parseq.parallel_object(required_object, optional_object, time_limit, time_option, throttle)

parseq.parallel_object is like parseq.parallel except that it operates on objects of requestors instead of on arrays of requestors. If successful, it will deliver an object of results. A key from an object of requestors will be used as the key for the requestor's result.

parseq.race(requestor_array, time_limit, throttle)

parseq.race returns a requestor that starts all of the requestors in requestor_array in parallel. Its result is the result of the first of those requestors to successfully finish. All of the other requestors will be cancelled. If all of those requestors fail, then the race fails.

If the time_limit argument is supplied, then if no requestor has been successful in the allotted time, then the race fails, and all pending requestors are cancelled.

If throttle is not undefined or 0, then there will be a limit on the number of requestors that will be active at a time.

parseq.sequence(requestor_array, time_limit)

parseq.sequence returns a requestor that processes each requestor in requestor_array one at a time. Each of those requestors will be passed the result of the previous requestor as its value argument. If all succeed, then the sequence succeeds, giving the result of the last of the requestors. If any fail, then the sequence fails.

If the optional time_limit argument is supplied, then if all of the requestors have not all completed in the allotted time, then the sequence fails and the pending requestor is cancelled.


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